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BRITISH competition law and EU competition law prohibit concerted agreements, agreements and practices that prevent, restrict or substantially distort competition, or if this is the desired result and affects or may affect trade within the UK or EU. Whether an agreement is anti-competitive is assessed on the basis of its objective or impact on competition, not on the basis of its wording or form. This means that oral and informal "gentlemen`s agreements" can be perceived as anti-competitive, as can formal and written agreements. Section 3 (1) of the Act provides for a general prohibition having agreements originally or originally initiated in India: auction manipulation involves groups of companies conspiring to raise prices or to reduce the quality of goods or services offered in public tenders. While this anti-competitive practice is illegal, it costs governments and taxpayers in OECD countries billions of dollars each year. Article 19, paragraph 1 of the Act provides that, in the event of payment of the fees and the prescribed terms, the ICC may request any alleged violation of Section 3 (1) of the Act itself or in the case of receiving information from individuals, consumers or their association or professional association. The ICC may also act when the central government or a state government or legal authority refers to it. The ICC only continues the investigation in cases of prima facie and then orders the Director General to open an investigation into the matter. In cases where, as a result of an investigation, the ICC finds that the agreement is anti-competitive and has an AAEC, it may make any of the following orders, with the exception of the interim measures it may take under Section 33 of the Act: anti-competitive conduct that could affect trade within the United Kingdom is prohibited by Chapters I and II of the Competition Act 1998. Articles 101 and 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFUE) also prohibit anti-competitive practices that could affect trade between EU Member States. EU rules will no longer come into force in the UK from 1 January 2021, but UK companies with cross-border activities within the EU remain subject to EU competition law with respect to these activities and national competition law in EU Member States.